The human body is contains to a variety of microorganisms, the majority of which are bacteria, including fungi, viruses, and other protozoa. Bacteria and other microorganisms are generally known for their disease-causing effects. However, there bacteria that do not have a disease-causing effect but also bacterias are beneficial for us. We can lead a harmonious, balanced life with these beneficial bacteria. As long as the beneficial bacteria do not disappear and leave their place to harmful, disease-causing bacteria.
The whole community of microorganisms that we share our body with is called Microbiota, the total gene structure of this community and the environment with which it interacts are called Microbiome. The Microbiota we live with contains ten times more microorganisms than human cells and one hundred and fifty times more genes than the human genome.
The human microbiota is located on the skin, reproductive organs, respiratory and most often intestinal tract. Due to its large surface area and rich nutrients for microorganisms, our intestines contain the densest and most diverse microorganism community in our body. The microbiota, which includes a large number and variety of microorganisms in healthy individuals, begins to form naturally after birth. It varies according to nutrition, genetic structure, age and geographic region.
Intestinal microbiota plays a pretty complex and active role on our physiological, metabolic and immune systems. Many chemical reactions by gut bacteria play an important role. In this way, compounds that humans cannot digest on their own are digested by bacteria.
This allows us to benefit from a wider range of foods. The intestinal microbiota is also important for the formation and development of the immune system. The developing immune system learns to distinguish between beneficial and harmful bacteria. While it tolerates beneficial bacteria, it gives a defensive response against disease-causing ones. The ideal structure of the intestinal bacterial flora is one of the main elements of a healthy life. There are indications that the gut microbiota may affect sleep patterns, mood, and some other behaviors. For the reasons listed above, the gut microbiota is now defined as a new ‘metabolic organ’.
Beneficial Bowel Bacteria
- By making the environment acidic, they prevent the proliferation of harmful bacteria causing disease, the formation of inflammation in the intestinal mucosa, the passage of toxic products from the intestines to the blood, and thus the formation of diseases.
- They help break down and absorb indigestible carbohydrates through the enzymes they produce. Fermented carbohydrates are converted into short-chain fatty acids. These are also used as energy sources. Calcium, magnesium and iron absorption increases. Proper bowel movements are ensured.
- They contribute to the production and absorption of vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and K.
- They play a role in the early development and lifelong functioning of the immune system by stimulating the lymphatic tissues located near the intestinal mucosa. They enable the immune system to respond only to disease-causing microorganisms.
Does the Bowel Microbiota Change?
Bacteria settle in the digestive tract as soon as the baby is born. Bacteria that settle first are recognized by the immune system. Therefore, the bacteria that settle first determine the content of the intestinal bacterial flora that will exist throughout the person’s life. The mode of birth, diet, and genetic factors affect the microbiota in infants. Intestinal microbiota content changes after chronic digestive system diseases, infections and antibiotic use. The change in the balance of healthy and beneficial microorganisms in the intestine in favor of harmful microorganisms and the deterioration of the ideal balance have been associated with many acute and chronic diseases. For this reason, it is important to determine the current status of the person by analyzing the microbiota in the stool.
Diseases Related with Impaired Bowel Microbiota
Diseases Associated with Impaired Gut Microbiota
Diabetes, Obesity, Metabolic syndrome
Allergic diseases (Rhinitis, Asthma, Atopic eczema)
Functional bowel diseases (irritable bowel syndrome, infantile colic)
Inflammatory bowel disease, Necrotizing colitis
Autism, Depression, Anxiety disorder
Rheumatoid arthritis, Non-alcoholic liver disease
How to Detect Bowel Microbiota Content?
Just as each person has a different genetic makeup, they may have a different microbiota. The characteristic features of bacteria are encoded in their genes. In this way, it is possible to identify the bacteria that make up the intestinal microbiota by using advanced molecular genetic analyzes. In the stool sample, it is possible to have information about the intestinal microbiota by detecting the bacterial genes with the newly developed DNA sequencing method. For this test, the stool sample must be taken into the sterile container you provide from our laboratory and delivered to our laboratory quickly.
The Contribution to Our Health Which Is Knowing the Content of Bowel Microbiota
The key to a healthy and long life is a healthy gut structure. Therefore, there are numerous benefits to knowing the personal gut microbiota content. If harmful microorganisms that can cause disease in the intestine are more intense, the balance of the microbiota is disrupted and the situation we call dysbiosis occurs. After the influence of foreign bacteria in a dysbiotic environment, an uncontrolled inflammation process begins. This can lead to the development of many diseases. In such a case, personalized advice and treatment approaches are possible, and solutions such as diet regulation according to the presence of increased or decreased bacteria, and the use of appropriate probiotics and prebiotics can be suggested.
*Probiotic (Bacterial cells that are beneficial for the intestine and friendly to the human body. These can be found in various foods or given as supplements.)
*Prebiotics (Special nutrients taken to feed beneficial and friendly bacteria and ensure their development)